Science and Research

At Wormswell we provide small doses of Necator americanus hookworm for self-administration with the understanding that our clients will engage in self-treatment and we cannot offer any medical advice for specific immune conditions. Our aim is to make Helminthic Treatment affordable, safe and easily accessible for the many people whom we believe it could benefit.

A fundamental part of the process of self-treatment with hookworms is engaging in as much research into your own particular condition in relation to Helminthic Treatment as possible in order to achieve optimal results.

A great place to begin your research is the Helminthic Therapy Wiki which has a large collection of documents detailing everything you need to know about the therapy.

We also would recommend joining the online HT support groups to access all the information you need to get started and make contact with other experienced HT users.

Facebook HT Support Group  is currently the most active HT forum, it is home to a large and welcoming group of HT users.

Yahoo HT Forum  is no longer as active as it’s Facebook counterpart, but has a large searchable archive of over 11,000 posts going back to the very beginnings of HT.

To take your research further we would recommend reading published and peer reviewed scientific studies, papers and trials relating to Helminthic Treatment. There are now a huge number of these and reading through them all can be a daunting task, so we have attempted to pick out the best and arrange them into accessible categories below so that you can read what is pertinent you your own situation.

 

CATEGORIES:

1. Papers from leading scientists in the field

2. Human studies and trials

3. Animal studies

4.The hygiene hypothesis and Old Friends Theory

5. Research into mechanisms of action: How helminths modulate the immune system

 

PAPERS FROM LEADING SCIENTISTS IN THE FIELD:

Professor William Parker, Duke University, North Carolina, USA

  1. Practices and outcomes of self-treatment with helminths based on physicians’ observations. 2016  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27240605
  2. Evolutionary Biology and Anthropology Suggest Biome Reconstitution as a Necessary Approach toward Dealing with Immune Disorders. 2013  http://emph.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2013/04/18/emph.eot008
  3. Reconstitution of the Human Biome as the Most Reasonable Solution for Epidemics of Allergic and Autoimmune Diseases. 2011      http://www.medical-hypotheses.com/article/S0306-9877(11)00277-5/abstract
  4. Reconstituting the depleted biome to prevent immune disorders. 2010  http://evmedreview.com/reconstituting-the-depleted-biome-to-prevent-immune-disorders/

 

 

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Professor Graham A W Rook, University College London, UK

  1. Microbial ‘Old Friends’, immunoregulation and stress resilience. 2013  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3868387/
  2. Darwinian Medicine and the Hygiene or“Old Friends” Hypothesis. 2012 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20415854
  3. Review series on helminths, immune modulation and the hygiene hypothesis: The broader implications of the hygiene hypothesis. 2009  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2632706/
  4. The Changing Microbial Environment and Chronic Inflammatory Disorders. 2008  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2868866/

 

 

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Professor David Pritchard, Nottingham University, UK

  1. Parasitic worm therapy for allergy: Is this incongruous or avant-garde medicine? 2012 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22168433
  2. Poor sanitation and helminth infection protect against skin sensitization in Vietnamese children: A cross sectional study. 2006  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17157661
  3. Parasite role reversal: worms on trial. 2005 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15780835
  4. The innate allergenicity of helminth parasites. 2004 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14755076
  5. Is Necator americanus approaching a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with humans? 2001 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11282505

 

 

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Professor Joel V. Weinstock, Tufts Medical Centre, Boston and Professor David E Elliot, University of Iowa, USA

  1. Clinical Trials of Helminth Therapy in Autoimmune Diseases: Rationale and Findings. 2014 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/pim.12175/abstract
  2. Helminth Infections Decrease Host Susceptibility to Immune-Mediated Diseases. 2014 http://www.jimmunol.org/content/193/7/3239.long
  3. Autoimmunity: The worm returns. 2012 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3744107/
  4. Where are we on worms? 2012 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23079675
  5. Helminth-host immunological interactions: Prevention and control of immune-mediated diseases. 2012  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22239614
  6. Helminthic therapy: Using worms to treat immune-mediated disease. 2009 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20054982
  7. Helminths and the IBD hygiene hypothesis. 2009 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18680198
  8. Helminths as governors of immune-mediated inflammation.  2007  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17313951

 

 

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HUMAN STUDIES AND TRIALS 

Asthma / allergy / atopy:

  1. Microbes and asthma: Opportunities for intervention 2016  http://www.jacionline.org/article/S0091-6749(16)00123-8/abstract
  2. The Role of Helminth Infection and Environment in the Development of Allergy: A Prospective Study of Newly-Arrived Ethiopian Immigrants in Israel 2016  http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0004208
  3. Potential Treatments for Food Allergy. 2015  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25459578
  4.  Maternal hookworm modifies risk factors for childhood eczema: results from a birth cohort in Uganda. 2014  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25171741
  5. Parasitic worms and allergies in childhood: Insights from population studies 2008-2013. 2013 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24325393
  6. The development of TH2 responses from infancy to 4 years of age and atopic sensitization in areas endemic for helminth infections. 2013  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23566643
  7. Advances in immunotherapy for food allergy. 2013  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23021370
  8. Atopy is inversely related to schistosome infection intensity: a comparative study in Zimbabwean villages with distinct levels of Schistosoma haematobium infection. 2012  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22398631
  9. Helminth therapy (worms) for allergic rhinitis. 2012  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22513973
  10. Atopic dermatitis and the hygiene hypothesis revisited. 2011  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21576944
  11. Effects of Helicobacter pylori, geohelminth infection and selected commensal bacteria on the risk of allergic disease and sensitization in 3-year-old Ethiopian children. 2011  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21831135
  12. Atopic diseases and intestinal helminth infections. 2010  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21500453
  13. Long-term periodic anthelmintic treatments are associated with increased allergen skin reactivity. 2010  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21039971
  14. Experimental hookworm infection: a randomized placebo-controlled trial in asthma. 2010  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20030661
  15. Trichuris suis ova therapy for allergic rhinitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. 2010  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19800680
  16. Reduced helminth burden increases allergen skin sensitization but not clinical allergy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Vietnam. 2010 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19758373
  17. Early infection with Trichuris trichiura and allergen skin test reactivity in later childhood. 2008  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18547322
  18. Dose-ranging study for trials of therapeutic infection with Necator americanus in humans. 2006 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17123987
  19. Asthma and current intestinal parasite infection: systematic review and meta-analysis. 2006  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16778161
  20. Geohelminth infections: impact on allergic diseases. 2006  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16413997
  21. Reduced risk of atopy among school-age children infected with geohelminth parasites in a rural area of the tropics. 2003  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12743563
  22. Modulation of the allergic reactivity of slum children by helminthic infection. 1993  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8361773

 

 

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Autism:

  1. Testing the use of helminth worm ova in treating autism 2015 https://sfari.org/funding/grants/abstracts/testing-the-use-of-helminth-worm-ova-in-treating-autism-spectrum-disorders
  2. Possible use of Trichuris suis ova in autism spectrum disorders therapy. 2013  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23597946
  3. Is autism a member of a family of diseases resulting from genetic/cultural mismatches? Implications for treatment and prevention. 2012  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22928103

 

 

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Celiac disease:

  1. Experimental hookworm infection and gluten microchallenge promote tolerance in celiac disease. 2014 http://www.jacionline.org/article/S0091-6749%2814%2901010-
  2. Changed gluten immunity in celiac disease by Necator americanus provides new insights into autoimmunity. 2013  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23291460
  3. Suppression of inflammatory immune responses in celiac disease by experimental hookworm infection. 2011  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21949691

 

 

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Diabetes (Type 1):

  1.  Parasitic helminths and their beneficial impact on type 1 and type 2 diabetes 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/dmrr.2673/abstract;jsessionid=96C89CC2ABE03C4B4B27D6A36504015C.f04t02
  2. Helminth mediated modulation of Type 1 diabetes (T1D) 2012  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23291464
  3. Helminth infection and type 1 diabetes. 2012  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23804266

 

 

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Heart Disease:

  1. A multimodal Darwinian strategy for alleviating the atherosclerosis pandemic.  2014   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24355423
  2. Relationship between carotid intima media thickness and helminth infections on Flores Island, Indonesia. 2013  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23365679
  3. Can worms defend our hearts? Chronic helminthic infections may attenuate the development of cardiovascular diseases. 2005   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15780483

 

 

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Inflammatory Bowel Disease:

  1. Helminth Immunomodulation in Autoimmune Disease. 2017  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28484453
  2. Randomised clinical trial: the safety and tolerability of Trichuris suis ova in patients with Crohn’s disease. 2013 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23730956
  3. Childhood helminth exposure is protective against inflammatory bowel disease: a case control study in South Africa. 2013  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23380935
  4. Trichuris suis ova: testing a helminth-based therapy as an extension of the hygiene hypothesis. 2012  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22742834
  5. Exposure to hookworms in patients with Crohn’s disease: a case-control study. 2011  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21848628
  6. For the Good of the Gut: Can Parasitic Worms Treat Autoimmune Diseases? 2010  http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/helminthic-therapy-mucus/
  7. The use of Trichuris suis and other helminth therapies to treat Crohn’s disease. 2007  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17206504
  8. A proof of concept study establishing Necator americanus in Crohn’s patients and reservoir donors. 2006 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1856386/
  9. Trichuris suis therapy for active ulcerative colitis: a randomized controlled trial. 2005  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15825065
  10. Trichuris suis therapy in Crohn’s disease. 2005  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15591509

 

 

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Metabolic Syndrome (Hypertension / Obesity / Diabetes Type 2):

  1. Helminths, hygiene hypothesis and type 2 diabetes. 2016  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27925245
  2. Cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes in evolutionary perspective: a critical role for helminths? 2016  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27666719
  3. A worm of one’s own: how helminths modulate host adipose tissue function and metabolism 2015  http://www.cell.com/trends/parasitology/abstract/S1471-4922%2815%2900085-9
  4. Does Strongyloides stercoralis infection protect against type 2 diabetes in humans? Evidence from Australian Aboriginal adults. 2014 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25656764
  5. Priming dendritic cells for th2 polarization: lessons learned from helminths and implications for metabolic disorders. 2014 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25368615

  6. Helminth Infections, Type-2 Immune Response, and Metabolic Syndrome 2014  http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info%3Adoi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004140
  7. Association of previous schistosome infection with diabetes and metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study in rural China 2013  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23275524

 

 

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Multiple Sclerosis:

  1. Helminth Immunomodulation in Autoimmune Disease. 2017  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28484453
  2. Immune-regulatory mechanisms of classical and experimental multiple sclerosis drugs: special focus on helminth-derived treatments. 2016  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26947777
  3. Multiple sclerosis and environmental factors: the role of vitamin D, parasites, and Epstein-Barr virus infection. 2015 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26046559
  4. Helminth therapy and multiple sclerosis. 2013  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23298637
  5. Immune monitoring of Trichuris suis egg therapy in multiple sclerosis patients. 2012 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21838960
  6. The impact of environmental infections (parasites) on MS activity. 2011  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21980148
  7. Probiotic helminth administration in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a phase 1 study. 2011  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21372112
  8. Association between parasite infection and immune responses in multiple sclerosis. 2007  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17230481

 

 

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Psychiatric Disorders / Mental Health:

  1. The Microbiota, Immunoregulation, and Mental Health: Implications for Public Health. 2016 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27436048
  2. Microbiota, Immunoregulatory Old Friends and Psychiatric Disorders 2014  http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4939-0897-4_15

 

 

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Rheumatoid Arthritis:

  1. Intestinal parasites infection: protective effect in rheumatoid arthritis? 2016  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27424065

 

 

ANIMAL STUDIES:

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Asthma / Allergy / Atopy:

  1. Hookworm recombinant protein promotes regulatory T cell responses that suppress experimental asthma. 2016  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27797959
  2. Low dose intestinal Trichuris muris infection alters the lung immune microenvironment and can suppress allergic airway inflammation. 2016 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26644379
  3. The parasitic worm-derived immunomodulator, ES-62 and its drug-like small molecule analogues exhibit therapeutic potential in a model of chronic asthma. 2016  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26763929
  4. Maternal immune response to helminth infection during pregnancy determines offspring susceptibility to allergic airway inflammation. 2014 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25042744
  5. Effect of different helminth extracts on the development of asthma in mice 2015  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26093162
  6. A nematode immunomodulator suppresses grass pollen-specific allergic responses by controlling excessive Th2 inflammation. 2013  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23174104
  7. Clonorchis sinensis-derived total protein attenuates airway inflammation in murine asthma model by inducing regulatory T cells and modulating dendritic cell functions. 2011 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21440530
  8. Trichinella spiralis: infection reduces airway allergic inflammation in mice. 2011  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21044628
  9. Helminth-induced CD19+CD23hi B cells modulate experimental allergic and autoimmune inflammation. 2010  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20306466
  10. Schistosoma mansoni antigens modulate the allergic response in a murine model of ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation. 2010  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20132231
  11. A helminth immunomodulator reduces allergic and inflammatory responses by induction of IL-10-producing macrophages. 2008  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18322239
  12. Suppression effect of different stage antigens of Schistosoma japonicum on airway inflammation in a murine model of asthma. 2008  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19288916
  13. Schistosoma japonicum infection modulates the development of allergen-induced airway inflammation in mice. 2008  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18654798
  14. Helminth infection with Litomosoides sigmodontis induces regulatory T cells and inhibits allergic sensitization, airway inflammation, and hyperreactivity in a murine asthma model. 2008 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18209076
  15. Helminth-derived products inhibit the development of allergic responses in mice. 2007  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17122383
  16. Modulation of anaphylaxis by helminth-derived products in animal models. 2007  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17504662
  17. Schistosoma japonicum egg antigens stimulate CD4 CD25 T cells and modulate airway inflammation in a murine model of asthma. 2007 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17042799
  18. Intestinal helminths protect in a murine model of asthma. 2006  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16849471
  19. Eosinophilic inflammation and airway hyper-responsiveness are profoundly inhibited by a helminth (Ascaris suum) extract in a murine model of asthma. 2002 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12569989

 

 

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Diabetes:

  1. Chronic helminth infection and helminth-derived egg antigens promote adipose tissue M2 macrophages and improve insulin sensitivity in obese mice 2015 http://www.fasebj.org/content/early/2015/04/07/fj.14-266239.short?rss=1
  2. Secreted Proteins from the Helminth Fasciola hepatica Inhibit the Initiation of Autoreactive T Cell Responses and Prevent Diabetes in the NOD Mouse. 2014  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24466007
  3. Previous contact with Strongyloides venezuelensis contributed to prevent insulitis in MLD-STZ diabetes. 2013  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23523576
  4. Heligmosomoides polygyrus infection reduces severity of type 1 diabetes induced by multiple low-dose streptozotocin in mice via STAT6- and IL-10-independent mechanisms. 2013  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23968688
  5. Taenia crassiceps infection attenuates multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes. 2010  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20069130
  6. Schistosoma mansoni egg antigens induce Treg that participate in diabetes prevention in NOD mice. 2009  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19291704
  7. Decreased basal non-insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by diaphragm in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni. 2008  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18509678
  8. Infection with Schistosoma mansoni prevents insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in non-obese diabetic mice. 1999  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10320614

 

 

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Food Allergy:

  1. Helminth-induced immunoregulation of an allergic response to food. 2006 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16210899
  2. Helminth infection protects mice from anaphylaxis via IL-10-producing B cells. 2004 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15528374
  3. An enteric helminth infection protects against an allergic response to dietary allergen. 2002  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=12218148

 

 

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Heart Disease:

  1. Reprogramming macrophages to an anti-inflammatory phenotype by helminth antigens reduces murine atherosclerosis. 2014  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24043262
  2. Anti-atherogenic effect and its mechanisms of soluble egg antigen of Schistosomia japonicum in ApoE-/- mice 2012  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23593834
  3. An anti-atherogenic effect of Schistosoma mansoni infections in mice associated with a parasite-induced lowering of blood total cholesterol. 2002  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12458825 

 

 

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Inflammatory Bowel Disease:

  1. Intimate gut interactions: helminths and the microbiota. 2016 http://www.nature.com/cr/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/cr201672a.html
  2. Therapeutic potential of recombinant cystatin from Schistosoma japonicum in TNBS-induced experimental colitis of mice 2016  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4700642/
  3. Treatment with Egg Antigens of Schistosoma mansoni Ameliorates Experimental Colitis in Mice Through a Colonic T-cell-dependent 2015 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25437821
  4. Therapeutic helminth infection of macaques with idiopathic chronic diarrhea alters the inflammatory signature and mucosal microbiota of the colon. 2012  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23166490
  5. Hookworm products ameliorate dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in BALB/c mice. 2011  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21290484
  6. Schistosoma japonicum ova maintains epithelial barrier function during experimental colitis. 2011 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22147983
  7. In vitro-derived alternatively activated macrophages reduce colonic inflammation in mice. 2010  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20044996
  8. Infection with Hymenolepis diminuta is more effective than daily corticosteroids in blocking chemically induced colitis in mice. 2010  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20011066
  9. Extracts of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta, suppress macrophage activation in vitro and alleviate chemically induced colitis in mice. 2010 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20028812
  10. Helminth antigen-based strategy to ameliorate inflammation in an experimental model of colitis. 2009 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19016806
  11. Schistosoma japonicum eggs modulate the activity of CD4+ CD25+ Tregs and prevent development of colitis in mice. 2007  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17433300
  12. Intestinal nematode infection ameliorates experimental colitis in mice. 2002 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12379667
  13. Infection with a helminth parasite prevents experimental colitis via a macrophage-mediated mechanism. 2007  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17372014
  14. Exposure to schistosome eggs protects mice from TNBS-induced colitis. 2003 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12431903

 

 

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Lupus:

  1. Drug-like analogues of the parasitic worm-derived immunomodulator ES-62 are therapeutic in the MRL/Lpr model of systemic lupus erythematosus 2015 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26085597
  2. The immunomodulatory parasitic worm product ES-62 reduces lupus-associated accelerated atherosclerosis in a mouse model. 2014 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25666929

 

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Multiple Sclerosis:

  1. Trichuris suis secrete products that reduce disease severity in a multiple sclerosis model. 2017  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28030334
  2. Heligmosomoides polygyrus: EAE remission is correlated with different systemic cytokine profiles provoked by L4 and adult nematodes. 2012  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22898371
  3. Soluble helminth products suppress clinical signs in murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and differentially modulate human dendritic cell activation. 2012  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22482518
  4. Soluble egg antigen from Schistosoma japonicum modulates the progression of chronic progressive experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis via Th2-shift response. 2008  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18207251
  5. Schistosomiasis decreases central nervous system inflammation and alters the progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. 2003  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12933842
  6. Immunomodulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by helminth ova immunization. 2003  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12502726

 

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Rheumatoid Arthritis:

  1. Experimental arthritis: Helminth infection ameliorates arthritis. 2016  http://www.nature.com/nrrheum/journal/v12/n7/full/nrrheum.2016.95.html
  2. Th2 and eosinophil responses suppress inflammatory arthritis. 2016 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27273006
  3. The parasitic helminth product ES-62 suppresses pathogenesis in collagen-induced arthritis by targeting the interleukin-17–producing cellular network at multiple sites. 2012  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22729944
  4. Impact of Schistosoma japonicum infection on collagen-induced arthritis in DBA/1 mice: a murine model of human rheumatoid arthritis. 2011 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21858123
  5. Infection with an intestinal helminth parasite reduces Freund’s complete adjuvant-induced monoarthritis in mice. 2011  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20967852
  6. Schistosoma mansoni infection reduces severity of collagen-induced arthritis via down-regulation of pro-inflammatory mediators. 2009  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18835272
  7. Spontaneous arthritis in MRL/lpr mice is aggravated by Staphylococcus aureus and ameliorated by Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infections. 2009  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18608175

 

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THE HYGIENE HYPOTHESIS AND OLD FRIENDS THEORY:

  1. Skewed Exposure to Environmental Antigens Complements Hygiene Hypothesis in Explaining the Rise of Allergy. 2017  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28342137
  2. Human Helminths and Allergic Disease: The Hygiene Hypothesis and Beyond. 2016  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27573628
  3. The hygiene hypothesis: current perspectives and future therapies. 2015  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27471720
  4. Allergy and worms: let’s bring back old friends? 2014  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25281198
  5. Microbial “Old Friends”, immunoregulation and socio-economic status. 2013  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24401109
  6. The hygiene theory harnessing helminths and their ova to treat autoimmunity. 2013 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23325330
  7. Regulation of the immune system by biodiversity from the natural environment: an ecosystem service essential to health. 2013  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24154724
  8. Review series on helminths, immune modulation and the hygiene hypothesis: the broader implications of the hygiene hypothesis. 2009  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19120493
  9. Hygiene hypothesis in inflammatory bowel disease: a critical review of the literature. 2008  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18186549
  10. The hygiene hypothesis and the increasing prevalence of chronic inflammatory disorders. 2007  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17619029
  11. Mechanisms of disease: the hygiene hypothesis revisited. 2006 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16673007
  12. Intestinal helminths: a clue explaining the low incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases in Subsaharan Africa? Potential benefits and hazards of helminth therapy. 2006  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17343086
  13. The hygiene hypothesis and inflammatory bowel diseases: role of helminths. 2006  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17343085
  14. The hygiene hypothesis and asthma. 2005  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15591883
  15. Mycobacteria and other environmental organisms as immunomodulators for immunoregulatory disorders. 2004  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15007629

 

[BACK TO CATEGORIES]

RESEARCH INTO MECHANISMS OF ACTION: HOW HELMINTHS MODULATE THE IMMUNE SYSTEM: 

The human immune system is incredibly complex, and in order to understand how helminths modulate it you will need a basic understanding of how it works. Here are some simple explanations of immune function to get you started:

  1. Wikipedia: Immune system http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immune_system
  2. Wikipedia: Adaptive immune system  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adaptive_immune_system
  3. BMJ: Th1 and Th2 responses: what are they?:  http://www.bmj.com/content/321/7258/424.1

This paper gives a succinct overview of what is known to date about the effect that helminths worms have on the immune system:

Immune Regulation during Helminth Infections. 2013 http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.ppat.1003250

And these are just some of the many scholarly articles examining the immunoregulatory abilities of helminth worms in more detail:

  1. Helminths in the gastrointestinal tract as modulators of immunity and pathology. 2017 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28302598
  2. Parasitic helminth infections and the control of human allergic and autoimmune disorders. 2016  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27172808
  3. Helminth infection promotes colonization resistance via type 2 immunity. 2016  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27080105
  4. Helminths and Intestinal Flora Team Up to Improve Gut Health. 2016  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27234811
  5. Regulation of the host immune system by helminth parasites. 2016 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27476889
  6. Recombinant proteins of helminths with immunoregulatory properties and their possible therapeutic use. 2016 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27871775
  7. Messages from helminths for the immune system: Parasite communication and cell-cell interactions. 2016  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27297184
  8. Parasitic helminth infections and the control of human allergic and autoimmune disorders. 2016  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27172808
  9. Macrobiota – helminths as active participants and partners of the microbiota in host intestinal homeostasis. 2016  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27116368
  10. Helminth infection promotes colonization resistance via type 2 immunity. 2016 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27080105
  11. Diplomatic Assistance: Can Helminth-Modulated Macrophages Act as Treatment for Inflammatory Disease? 2016  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4839649/
  12. Helminth Products Protect against Autoimmunity via Innate Type 2 Cytokines IL-5 and IL-33, Which Promote Eosinophilia. 2016  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26673140
  13. Exosome-transported microRNAs of helminth origin: new tools for allergic and autoimmune diseases therapy? 2015  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2571215
  14. Can Helminth Infection Reverse Microbial Dysbiosis? 2015  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26604162
  15. The Intestinal Microbiota Contributes to the Ability of Helminths to Modulate Allergic Inflammation. 2015  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4658337/
  16. Cohabitation in the Intestine: Interactions among Helminth Parasites, Bacterial Microbiota, and Host Immunity. 2015  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26477048
  17. Mast cells: New therapeutic target in helminth immune modulation. 2015  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26577605
  18. Helminth infection alters IgE responses to allergens structurally related to parasite proteins. 2015  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25404363
  19. The mechanisms behind helminth’s immunomodulation in autoimmunity. 2014 http://ht.ly/2Q5Zua
  20. Blockade of IL-33 release and suppression of type 2 innate lymphoid cell responses by helminth secreted products in airway allergy. 2014  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24496315
  21. A role for IL-22 in the relationship between intestinal helminths, gut microbiota and mucosal immunity. 2013  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23178750
  22. The helminth product, ES-62, protects against airway inflammation by resetting the Th cell phenotype. 2013  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23291461
  23. Protection against allergic airway inflammation during the chronic and acute phases of Trichinella spiralis infection. 2013  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23278885
  24. Helminth antigens enable CpG-activated dendritic cells to inhibit the symptoms of collagen-induced arthritis through Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. 2012  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22848374
  25. Therapeutic helminth infection of macaques with idiopathic chronic diarrhea alters the inflammatory signature and mucosal microbiota of the colon. 2012  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23166490
  26. Helminthic therapy: improving mucosal barrier function. 2012  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22464690
  27. Nematode modulation of inflammatory bowel disease. 2012  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22086188
  28. Parasitic helminth cystatin inhibits DSS-induced intestinal inflammation via IL-10(+)F4/80(+) macrophage recruitment. 2011  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22072824
  29. Toll-like receptor activation by helminths or helminth products to alleviate inflammatory bowel disease. 2011 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21943110
  30. The transcriptome of Trichuris suis–first molecular insights into a parasite with curative properties for key immune diseases of humans. 2011  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21887281
  31. Regulatory B-cell induction by helminths: implications for allergic disease. 2011  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21684587
  32. Chronic helminth infections protect against allergic diseases by active regulatory processes. 2010  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20425508
  33. Helminth-induced CD19+CD23hi B cells modulate experimental allergic and autoimmune inflammation. 2010  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20306466
  34. Dendritic cells in the gut: interaction with intestinal helminths. 2010  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20224759
  35. Helminth infection inhibits airway allergic reaction and dendritic cells are involved in the modulation process. 2010  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20042008
  36. IL-22+ CD4+ T cells are associated with therapeutic trichuris trichiura infection in an ulcerative colitis patient. 2010  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21123809
  37. Parasites represent a major selective force for interleukin genes and shape the genetic predisposition to autoimmune conditions. 2009  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19468064
  38. Survival of the fittest: allergology or parasitology? 2009  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19744885
  39. Immune and genetic aspects of asthma, allergy and parasitic worm infections: evolutionary links. 2009 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19388947
  40. Parasitic nematode modulation of allergic disease. 2008  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18682103
  41. Worms tame mast cells. 2007 http://www.nature.com/nm/journal/v13/n11/full/nm1107-1288.html
  42. Interrelationship among asthma, atopy, and helminth infections. 2007  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17906796
  43. Regulation of the immune system in metazoan parasite infections. 2007  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17534075
  44. Worms and allergy. 2006  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16965288
  45. Helminths can protect themselves against rejection inhibiting hostile respiratory allergy symptoms. 2006  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16512800
  46. Glycans modulate immune responses in helminth infections and allergy. 2006  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16210905
  47. Helminths and mucosal immune modulation. 2006  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17057216